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Cholera toxin also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to ctx ctx or ct is ab5 multimeric protein complex secreted by the bacterium vibrio cholerae ctx is responsible for the massive watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection it is a member of the heat labile enterotoxin familycholera toxins produced by vibrio cholerae cholera toxin ct is a multimeric enterotoxin that transfers adp ribose to a g protein locking adenylate cyclase in an on position how does cholera toxin cause diarrhea by binding to the membrane of enteric cells cholera toxin stimulates the cellular adenylate cyclase system causing the hyper secretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions cholera toxin b subunit cholera toxin ct is a bacterial protein toxin produced by vibrio cholerae which binds to cellular membranes with high affinity ct is composed of an active subunit a which induces toxicity by continuously activating stimulatory g proteins gs thereby increasing cyclic adenine monophosphate levels and a the actions of cholera toxin when cholera toxin is released from the bacteria in the infected intestine it binds to the intestinal cells known as enterocytes epithelial cell in above diagram through the interaction of the pentameric b subunit of the toxin with the gm1 ganglioside receptor on the intestinal cell triggering endocytosis of the toxincholera toxin shown here from pdb entry 1xtc has a ring of five identical protein chains colored blue here which binds to carbohydrates on the surface of cells this delivers the toxic part of the molecule colored red to the cell where it can wreak its havoc

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